There is a decided tendency
in the physical sciences to unify the great basic laws and to relate,
by a single structure or mechanism, such individual phenomena as gravitation,
electrodynamics and even matter itself. It is found that matter and
electricity are very closely related in structure. In the final analysis
matter loses its traditional individuality and becomes merely an "electrical
condition." In fact, it might be said that the concrete body
of the universe is nothing more than an assemblage of energy which,
in itself, is quite intangible. Of course, it is self-evident that
matter is connected with gravitation and it follows logically that
electricity is likewise connected. These relations exist in the realm
of pure energy and consequently are very basic in nature. In all reality
they constitute the true backbone of the universe. It is needless
to say that the relations are not simple, and full understanding of
their concepts is complicated by the outstanding lack of information
and research on the real nature of gravitation.
theory of relativity introduced a new and revolutionary light to the
subject by injecting a new conception of space and time. Gravitation
thus becomes the natural outcome of so-called "distorted space."
It loses its Newtonian interpretation as a tangible mechanical force
and gains the rank of an "apparent" force, due merely to
the condition of space itself.
Fields in space are produced
by the presence of material bodies or electric charges. They are gravitational
fields or electric fields according to their causes. Apparently they
have no connection one with the other. This fact is substantiated
by observations to the effect that electric fields can be shielded
and annulled while gravitational fields are nearly perfectly penetrating.
This dissimilarity has been the chief hardship to those who would
compose a Theory of Combination.
It required Dr. Einstein's
own close study for a period of several years to achieve the results
others have sought in vain and to announce with certainty the unitary
Einstein's field theory
is purely mathematical. It is not based on the results of any laboratory
test and does not, so far as known, predict any method by which an
actual demonstration or proof may be made. The new theory accomplishes
its purpose by "rounding out" the accepted Principles of
Relativity so as to embrace electrical phenomena.
The Theory of Relativity
thus supplemented represents the last word in mathematical physics.
It is most certainly a theoretical structure of overpowering magnitude
and importance. The thought involved is so far reaching that it may
be many years before the work is fully appreciated and understood.
However, Dr. Einstein's
announcement of his recent work has spirited the physicists of the
entire world to locate and demonstrate, if possible, any structural
relationship between electro-dynamics and gravitation. It is not that
they questioned or doubted Einsteinís reasoning or his mathematics,
(for they have learned better), but that they realized that a relation
should exist and were eager to find it.
The writer and his colleagues
anticipated the present situation even as early as 1923, and began
at that time to construct the necessary theoretical bridge between
the two then separate phenomena, electricity and gravitation. The
first actual demonstration of the relation was made in 1924. Observations
were made of the individual and combined motions of two heavy lead
balls which were suspended by wires 45 cm. apart. The balls were given
opposite electrical charges and the charges were maintained. Sensitive
optical methods were employed in measuring the movements, and as near
as could be observed the balls appeared to behave according to the
following law: "Any system of two bodies possesses a mutual and
unidirectional force (typically in the line of the bodies) which is
directly proportional to the product of the masses, directly proportional
to the potential difference and inversely proportional to the square
of the distance between them."
The peculiar result is
that the gravitational field of the Earth had no apparent connection
with the experiment. The gravitational factors entered through the
consideration of the mass of the electrified bodies.
newly discovered force was quite obviously the resultant physical
effect of an electro-gravitational interaction. It represented the
first actual evidence of the very basic relationship. The force was
named "gravitator action" for want of a better term and
the apparatus or system of masses employed was called a "gravitator."
Since the time of the
first test the apparatus and the methods used have been greatly improved
and simplified. Cellular "gravitators" have taken the place
of the large balls of lead. Rotating frames supporting two and four
gravitators have made possible acceleration measurements. Molecular
gravitators made of solid blocks of massive dielectric have given
still greater efficiency. Rotors and pendulums operating under oil
have eliminated atmospheric considerations as to pressure, temperature
and humidity. The disturbing effects of ionization, electron emission
and pure electro-statics have likewise been carefully analyzed and
eliminated. Finally after many years of tedious work and with refinement
of methods we succeeded in observing the gravitational variations
produced by the moon and sun and much smaller variations produced
by the different planets. It is a curious fact that the effects are
most pronounced when the affecting body is in the alignment of the
differently charged elements and least pronounced when it is at right
Much of the credit for
this research is due to Dr. Paul Biefield, Director of Swazey Observatory.
The writer is deeply indebted to him for his assistance and for his
many valuable and timely suggestions.
Action an Impulse
us take, for example, the case of a gravitator totally immersed in
oil but suspended so as to act as a pendulum and swing along the line
of its elements.
When the direct current
with high voltage (75-300 kilovolts) is applied the gravitator swings
up the arc until its propulsive force balances the force of the earth's
gravity resolved to that point, then it stops, but it does not remain
there. The pendulum then gradually returns to the vertical or starting
position even while the potential is maintained. The pendulum swings
only to one side of the vertical. Less than five seconds is required
for the test pendulum to reach the maximum amplitude of the swing
but from thirty to eighty seconds are required for it to return to
total time or duration of the impulse varies with such cosmic conditions
as the relative position and distance of the moon, sun and so forth.
It is in no way affected by fluctuations in the supplied voltage and
averages the same for every mass or material under test. The duration
of the impulse is governed solely by the condition of the gravitational
field. It is a value which is unaffected by changes in the experimental
set-up, voltage applied or type of gravitator employed. Any number
of different kinds of gravitators operating simultaneously on widely
different voltages would reveal exactly the same impulse duration
at any instant. Over an extended period of time all gravitators would
show equal variations in the duration of the impulse.
the gravitator is once fully discharged, its impulse exhausted, the
electrical potential must be removed for at least five minutes in
order that it may recharge itself and regain its normal gravitic condition.
The effect is much like that of discharging and charging a storage
battery, except that electricity is handled in a reverse manner. When
the duration of the impulse is great the time required for complete
recharge is likewise great. The times of discharge and recharge are
always proportional. Technically speaking, the exo-gravitic rate and
the endo-gravitic rate are proportional to the gravitic capacity.
Summing up the observations
of the electro-gravitic pendulum the following characteristics are
APPLIED VOLTAGE determines
only the amplitude of the swing.
APPLIED AMPERAGE is only
sufficient to overcome leakage and maintain the required voltage through
the losses of the dielectric. Thus the total load approximates on
37 ten-millionths of an ampere. It apparently has no other relation
to the movement at least from the present state of physics.
MASS of the dielectric
is a factor in determining the total energy involved in the impulse.
For a given amplitude an increase in mass is productive of an increase
in the energy exhibited by the system (E = mg).
OF THE IMPULSE with electrical conditions maintained is independent
of all of the foregoing factors. It is governed solely by external
gravitational conditions, positions of the moon, sun, etc., and represents
the total energy or summation of energy values which are effective
at that instant.
GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY LEVELS
are observable as the pendulum returns from the maximum deflection
to the zero point or vertical position. The pendulum hesitates in
its return movement on definite levels or steps. The relative position
and influence of these steps vary continuously every minute of the
day. One step or energy value corresponds in effect to each cosmic
body that is influencing the electrified mass or gravitator. By merely
tracing a succession of values over a period of time a fairly intelligible
record of the paths and the relative gravitational effects of the
moon, sun, etc., may be obtained.
In general then, every
material body possesses inherently within its substance separate and
distinct energy levels corresponding to the gravitational influences
of every other body. these levels are readily revealed as the electro-gravitic
impulse dies and as the total gravitic content of the body is slowly
gravitator, in all reality, is a very efficient electric motor. Unlike
other forms of motors it does not in any way involve the principles
of electromagnetism, but instead it utilizes the newer principles
of electro-gravitation. A simple gravitator has no moving parts but
is apparently capable of moving itself from within itself. It is highly
efficient for the reason that it uses no gears, shafts, propellers
or wheels in creating its motive power. It has no internal resistance
and no observable rise in temperature. Contrary to the common belief
that gravitational motors must necessarily be vertical-acting the
gravitator, it is found, acts equally well in every conceivable direction.
While the gravitator is
at present primarily a scientific instrument, perhaps even an astronomical
instrument, it also is rapidly advancing to a position of commercial
value. Multi-impulse gravitators weighing hundreds of tons may propel
the ocean liners of the future. Smaller and more concentrated units
may propel automobiles and even airplanes. Perhaps even the fantastic
"space cars" and the promised visit to Mars may be the final
outcome. Who can tell?